在德国的中国制造?玻尿酸 – 游走于德国和中国之间的抄袭者和游击式营销

在皮肤护理当中,玻尿酸已经不可或缺,尤其是含有该成分的德国产品在世界范围内受到极大的欢迎。中国消费者对于来自德国的玻尿酸产品的信任导致了美容产品市场出现了有趣的发展趋势。关于来源国效应以及中国式游击营销的重要性。

玻尿酸是身体自身产生的奇妙物质。它存在于人体的每个细胞当中,它的功能之一就是保持皮肤的弹性和结缔组织的紧凑。然而,随着年龄的增长,玻尿酸的分泌会减少。由此,结缔组织会被波及到,这样,衰老的迹象就会由此而产生。由此,含有玻尿酸的护理产品便派上用场 – 不管是以血清、面膜或者甚至是药片的形式。如果您定期使用玻尿酸,并让其发挥作用,那么,皱纹便会明显减少。

德国玻尿酸受到中国消费者欢迎

多年以来,德国的膳食补充产品以及化妆品大受中国消费者的欢迎。不管是生活在海外的中国人还是来自中国的游客都会在德国的药房和药妆店大肆购买该类产品。典型代表就是大蒜精以及各类维生素产品。一段时间内,德国奶粉的受欢迎程度如此之高,以至于德国药妆店都出现了该类产品的短缺。

玻尿酸皮肤护理产品对于前来采购的中国人来说也已经达到了类似的地位。低价位区间的Balea(隶属于dm)以及高端领域的诸如维诗朵(Viscontour)玻尿酸美白保湿精华一类的产品在德国的中国消费者中间以及在中国均大受欢迎。因此,新的品牌在过去的几年中涌入德国-中国市场也就不足为奇。鉴于其来源地和营销方式,他们体现出特殊的特征。

带有中国特色的德国玻尿酸品牌

最终,在德国诞生了多个玻尿酸品牌,它们在德国还不是很出名,但是却越来越多地出现在旅德华人的媒体和论坛当中。在这些品牌的背后有德国的企业形式 – 如果我们去查阅一下德国的企业登记簿就会知道,从名字上来看,这些企业的建立者都是中国人或者华人。我们可以猜测,来自于中国和德国的商人想要抓住机会从这波玻尿酸大潮中受益。这本身还不是特别引人注目。

与此同时,新的玻尿酸品牌在中国采取的应销手段十分引人注目,这一点Sylvia Meffert,维诗朵(Viscontour)的品牌经理,向我们做出了解释:“我们在对中国市场的分析当中注意到,几个新的拥有德国企业形式的竞争者正在采取咄咄逼人的反营销措施。几个品牌表面看起来已经联合了起来,以对抗大受欢迎的传统德国品牌,比如维诗朵。”在中国的网络中我们确实可以找到包含伪科学实验的文章,他们宣称证明了某玻尿酸品牌的质量要优于其他品牌。在这里,新兴的德国-中国品牌表现非常优秀。

网络营销中来源国效应的重要性

生产者和品牌利用海外特征来美化自己,这种做法在国际营销中司空见惯。“德国制造”在世界范围都是最受欢迎的来源国标签。因此,不难理解,国外公司都想利用德国特征来获得加分。在德国本地,这种营销方式也存在 – 但是是反过来。  比如,一段时间之内,来自于斯堪的纳维亚、瑞士以及奥地利的产品很受欢迎。由此,德国生产商有时会为自己贴上北欧或者山地标签,这其实和真正的产品制造地关系并不大。但是有谁能知道:也许某一天,德国公司会强调自己的中国特征,因为中国产品在世界上代表了最高质量水准。华为了解一下。

The origin of hyaluronic acid

First discovered in the vitreous humor of the eye in 1934 and subsequently synthesized in vitro in 1964,  hyaluronic acid (or hyaluronic acid or hyaluronic acid) is a negatively charged high molecular weight (up to 107 Daltons) sugar Aminoglycans, mainly present in the extracellular matrix. Glycosaminoglycans (or proteoglycans or GAGs) are key components of all layers of the skin. GAGs are complex polyanionic polysaccharides located on the cell surface and in the cell matrix. HA is the simplest glycosaminoglycan, the only one that is not covalently linked to core protein, it is unbranched and consists of repeating alternating units of glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine. Therefore, it is highly hygroscopic: Hydrated Hyaluronic Acid contains 1000 times its own weight in water.

Hyaluronic acid is produced at the plasma membrane by hyaluronan synthase from cytoplasmic UDP-glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine as substrates. There are three hyaluronan synthases HAS-1, -2 and -3. HAS-2 is the most common synthetic enzyme in the skin.

The important role of hyaluronic acid in the body is known for its modulating activity on epidermal proliferation and its ability to retain water. Despite its simple composition, numerous other biological functions have been discovered. It functions not only as a bioglue, involved in lubricating joints or binding gelatinous connective tissue together, but also as a microenvironmental signal that is co-regulated during embryonic development and morphogenesis, wound healing, repair, and regeneration cell behavior.

Hyaluronic acid and its fragments have been found to constitute messengers for various signal transduction pathways within cells. In this process, various receptors are involved. In fact, hyaluronic acid has several known receptors: CD44, RHAMM, TLR4 and 2, Lyve-1, HARE, etc. CD44 (cluster of differentiation 44) was identified as the major hyaluronan receptor.

CD44 is a cell surface glycoprotein involved in multiple cellular functions, including adhesion to hyaluronic acid and collagen. It recognizes the hexasaccharide sequence of hyaluronic acid. By anchoring to cells by CD44, hyaluronic acid is stabilized and creates a moist and lubricious environment in the extracellular matrix. This ensures optimal viscoelasticity, moisturization and nutrient supply. Furthermore, the CD44 receptor plays an important role in the regulation of hyaluronan turnover.

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